ruby on rails - Difference between rake db:migrate db:reset and db:schema:load

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  • db:migrate runs (single) migrations that have not run yet.

  • db:create creates the database

  • db:drop deletes the database

  • db:schema:load creates tables and columns within the existing database following schema.rb. This will delete existing data.

  • db:setup does db:create, db:schema:load, db:seed

  • db:reset does db:drop, db:setup

  • db:migrate:reset does db:drop, db:create, db:migrate

Typically, you would use db:migrate after having made changes to the schema via new migration files (this makes sense only if there is already data in the database). db:schema:load is used when you setup a new instance of your app.

I hope that helps.

UPDATE for rails 3.2.12:

I just checked the source and the dependencies are like this now:

  • db:create creates the database for the current env

  • db:create:all creates the databases for all envs

  • db:drop drops the database for the current env

  • db:drop:all drops the databases for all envs

  • db:migrate runs migrations for the current env that have not run yet

  • db:migrate:up runs one specific migration

  • db:migrate:down rolls back one specific migration

  • db:migrate:status shows current migration status

  • db:rollback rolls back the last migration

  • db:forward advances the current schema version to the next one

  • db:seed (only) runs the db/seed.rb file

  • db:schema:load loads the schema into the current env's database

  • db:schema:dump dumps the current env's schema (and seems to create the db as well)

  • db:setup runs db:schema:load, db:seed

  • db:reset runs db:drop db:setup

  • db:migrate:redo runs (db:migrate:down db:migrate:up) or (db:rollback db:migrate) depending on the specified migration

  • db:migrate:reset runs db:drop db:create db:migrate

For further information please have a look at (for Rails 3.2.x) and (for Rails 4.0.x)

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  • rake db:migrate If you wanna make changes to the schema
  • rake db:reset If you wanna drop the database, reload the schema from schema.rb, and reseed the database
  • rake db:schema:load If you wanna reset database to schema as provided in schema.rb (This will delete all data)


rake db:schema:load will set up the schema as provided in schema.rb file. This is useful for a fresh install of app as it doesn't take as much time as db:migrate

Important note, db:schema:load will delete data on server.

rake db:migrate makes changes to the existing schema. Its like creating versions of schema. db:migrate will look in db/migrate/ for any ruby files and execute the migrations that aren't run yet starting with the oldest. Rails knows which file is the oldest by looking at the timestamp at the beginning of the migration filename. db:migrate comes with a benefit that data can also be put in the database. This is actually not a good practice. Its better to use rake db:seed to add data.

rake db:migrate provides tasks up, down etc which enables commands like rake db:rollback and makes it the most useful command.

rake db:reset does a db:drop and db:setup
It drops the database, create it again, loads the schema, and initializes with the seed data

Relevant part of the commands from databases.rake

namespace :schema do   desc 'Creates a db/schema.rb file that is portable against any DB supported by Active Record'   task :dump => [:environment, :load_config] do     require 'active_record/schema_dumper'     filename = ENV['SCHEMA'] || File.join(ActiveRecord::Tasks::DatabaseTasks.db_dir, 'schema.rb'), "w:utf-8") do |file|       ActiveRecord::SchemaDumper.dump(ActiveRecord::Base.connection, file)     end     db_namespace['schema:dump'].reenable   end    desc 'Loads a schema.rb file into the database'   task :load => [:environment, :load_config, :check_protected_environments] do     ActiveRecord::Tasks::DatabaseTasks.load_schema_current(:ruby, ENV['SCHEMA'])   end 

  # desc 'Drops and recreates the database from db/schema.rb for the current environment and loads the seeds.'   task :reset => [ 'db:drop', 'db:setup' ] 

namespace :migrate do   # desc  'Rollbacks the database one migration and re migrate up (options: STEP=x, VERSION=x).'   task :redo => [:environment, :load_config] do     if ENV['VERSION']       db_namespace['migrate:down'].invoke       db_namespace['migrate:up'].invoke     else       db_namespace['rollback'].invoke       db_namespace['migrate'].invoke     end   end 
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Rails 5

db:create - Creates the database for the current RAILS_ENV environment. If RAILS_ENV is not specified it defaults to the development and test databases.

db:create:all - Creates the database for all environments.

db:drop - Drops the database for the current RAILS_ENV environment. If RAILS_ENV is not specified it defaults to the development and test databases.

db:drop:all - Drops the database for all environments.

db:migrate - Runs migrations for the current environment that have not run yet. By default it will run migrations only in the development environment.

db:migrate:redo - Runs db:migrate:down and db:migrate:up or db:migrate:rollback and db:migrate:up depending on the specified migration.

db:migrate:up - Runs the up for the given migration VERSION.

db:migrate:down - Runs the down for the given migration VERSION.

db:migrate:status - Displays the current migration status.

db:migrate:rollback - Rolls back the last migration.

db:version - Prints the current schema version.

db:forward - Pushes the schema to the next version.

db:seed - Runs the db/seeds.rb file.

db:schema:load Recreates the database from the schema.rb file. Deletes existing data.

db:schema:dump Dumps the current environment’s schema to db/schema.rb.

db:structure:load - Recreates the database from the structure.sql file.

db:structure:dump - Dumps the current environment’s schema to db/structure.sql. (You can specify another file with SCHEMA=db/my_structure.sql)

db:setup Runs db:create, db:schema:load and db:seed.

db:reset Runs db:drop and db:setup. db:migrate:reset - Runs db:drop, db:create and db:migrate.

db:test:prepare - Check for pending migrations and load the test schema. (If you run rake without any arguments it will do this by default.)

db:test:clone - Recreate the test database from the current environment’s database schema.

db:test:clone_structure - Similar to db:test:clone, but it will ensure that your test database has the same structure, including charsets and collations, as your current environment’s database.

db:environment:set - Set the current RAILS_ENV environment in the ar_internal_metadata table. (Used as part of the protected environment check.)

db:check_protected_environments - Checks if a destructive action can be performed in the current RAILS_ENV environment. Used internally when running a destructive action such as db:drop or db:schema:load.

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As far as I understand, it is going to drop your database and re-create it based on your db/schema.rb file. That is why you need to make sure that your schema.rb file is always up to date and under version control.

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You could simply look in the Active Record Rake tasks as that is where I believe they live as in this file.

What they do is your question right?

That depends on where they come from and this is just and example to show that they vary depending upon the task. Here we have a different file full of tasks.

which has these tasks.

namespace :db do   task create: ["db:mysql:build", "db:postgresql:build"]   task drop: ["db:mysql:drop", "db:postgresql:drop"] end 

This may not answer your question but could give you some insight into go ahead and look the source over especially the rake files and tasks. As they do a pretty good job of helping you use rails they don't always document the code that well. We could all help there if we know what it is supposed to do.

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